Sunday, November 27, 2016

Linux - Locking a file

You could use the following command to lock a Linux file


#Open myfile as file descriptor 2
$ exec 2>myfile
#lock the file descriptor 2
$ flock -x 2

And release the lock with the following

$ exec 2>&-

Then, you could show file descriptor holding with the following command

lsof | grep myfile

or

lsof myfile

It could return something like

bash        132  userX    2wW   REG    8,2    0 135612 myfile

The following is the man page from lsof


FD
is the File Descriptor number of the file or:
cwd current working directory; Lnn library references (AIX); err FD information error (see NAME column); jld jail directory (FreeBSD); ltx shared library text (code and data); Mxx hex memory-mapped type number xx. m86 DOS Merge mapped file; mem memory-mapped file; mmap memory-mapped device; pd parent directory; rtd root directory; tr kernel trace file (OpenBSD); txt program text (code and data); v86 VP/ix mapped file;
FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which the file is open:
r for read access;
w for write access;
u for read and write access;
space if mode unknown and no lock
character follows;
'-' if mode unknown and lock
character follows.
The mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing
the type of lock applied to the file:
N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
r for read lock on part of the file;
R for a read lock on the entire file;
w for a write lock on part of the file;
W for a write lock on the entire file;
u for a read and write lock of any length;
U for a lock of unknown type;
x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part
of the file;
X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the
entire file;
space if there is no lock.

So, if the output is 2wW, it means File Descriptor 2 is open for write access and has a write lock on the entire file.

Sunday, October 16, 2016

Oracle - Unable to extend index SYS.I_OBJ1 by 8 in tablespace SYSTEM

If you see the following similar error message

unable to extend index SYS.I_OBJ1 by 8 in tablespace SYSTEM

It means that your tablespace is out of space and you should increase it if possible.

You can issue the following command to check your current size of the tablespace

select * from dba_data_files where tablespace_name='SYSTEM';

It will return the path and the current size of the tablespace



The above should that I have only about 650M tablespace.

Then, depend on your current size, you could issue the following 

alter database datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XE/system.dbf' resize 1024M

Note: The above example is increasing to 1024M to my path. You should modify the path and size according to your need.

Reference:

1. http://www.markcallen.com/oracle/ora-01654-unable-to-extend-index/

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Tomcat - Setting up SSL with self-signed certificate

At the Tomcat document (SSL How To) provides a detailed explanation on how to create Tomcat with SSL (Self-Signed)

Below are the essential steps required for Linux

1. Prepare the certificate key store

Run the command

$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA

This command will create a new file, in the home directory of the user under which you run it, named ".keystore".

If you want to create a keystore somewhere else, you can use

$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
  -keystore /path/to/my/keystore

2. Edit the Tomcat server.xml to something similar as following



The above will use JSSE implementation of SSL.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Hadoop - How to setup a Hadoop Cluster

Below is a step-by-step guide which I had used to setup a Hadoop Cluster

Scenario


3 VMs involved:

1) NameNode, ResourceManager - Host name: NameNode.net
2) DataNode 1 - Host name: DataNode1.net
3) DataNode 2 - Host name: DataNode2.net


Pre-requisite


1) You could create a new Hadoop user or use an existing user. But make sure the user have access to the Hadoop installation in ALL nodes

2) Install JAVA. Refer here for a good version. In this guide, Java is installed at /usr/java/latest

3) Download a stable version of Hadoop from Apache Mirrors

This guide is based on Hadoop 2.7.1 and assume that we had create a user call hadoop


Setup Passphaseless SSH from NameNode to all Nodes.


1) Run the command

ssh-keygen

This command will ask you a set of questions and accepting the default is fine. Eventually, it will create a set of private key (id_rsa) and public key (id_rsa.pub) at the user directory (/home/hadoop/.ssh)

2) Copy the public key to all Nodes with the following

ssh-copy-id -i /home/hadoop/.ssh/id_rsa.pub NameNode.net
ssh-copy-id -i /home/hadoop/.ssh/id_rsa.pub DataNode1.net
ssh-copy-id -i /home/hadoop/.ssh/id_rsa.pub DataNode2.net

3) Test the passphaseless SSH connection from NameNode with

ssh (hostname)


Install Hadoop in all Node


1) With the downloaded Hadoop distribution. Unzip it to a location where the Hadoop user had access

For this guide, I had create a /usr/local/hadoop and un-tar the distribution at this folder. The full path of Hadoop installation is /usr/local/hadoop/hadoop-2.7.1


Setup Environment Variables


1) It is best that Hadoop Variables are exported to the environment when user log in. To do so, run the command at the NameNode

sudo vi /etc/profile.d/hadoop.sh

2) Add the following in /etc/profile.d/hadoop.sh

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest
export HADOOP_HOME=/usr/hadoop
export HADOOP_COMMON_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_HDFS_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_YARN_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_OPTS="-Djava.library.path=$HADOOP_HOME/lib/native"
export HADOOP_COMMON_LIB_NATIVE_DIR=$HADOOP_HOME/lib/native
export PATH=$HADOOP_HOME/sbin:$HADOOP_HOME/bin:$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
3) Source this file or re-login to setup the environment.

4) (OPTIONAL) Set up the above for all Nodes.


Setup NameNode & ResourceManager


1) Make a directory to hold NameNode data

mkdir /usr/local/hadoop/hdfs_namenode

2) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml




Note: dfs.datanode.data.dir value must be a URI

3) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml





4) (OPTIONAL) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml (We are using NameNode as ResourceManager)



5) (OPTIONAL) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/yarn-site.xml (We are using NameNode as ResourceManager)


6) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/slaves

First, remove localhost from the file, then add the following



Setup DataNodes


1) Make a directory to hold DataNode data

mkdir /usr/local/hadoop/hdfs_datanode

2) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml



Note: dfs.datanode.data.dir value must be a URI

3) Setup $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml




Format NameNode


The above setting should be enough to set up the Hadoop cluster. Next, for the first time, you will need to format the NameNode. Use the following command to format the NameNode

hdfs namenode -format

Example output is



Note: the same command can be used to reformat your existing NameNode. But remember to clean up your datanodes hdfs folder as well.


Start NameNode


You can start Hadoop with the given script

start-dfs.sh

Example output is










Stop NameNode


You can stop Hadoop with the given script

stop-dfs.sh

Example output is



Start ResourceManager


You can start the ResourceManager, in this case, Yarn, with the given script

start-yarn.sh

Example output is




Stop ResourceManager


You can stop the ResourceManager, in this case, Yarn, with the given script

stop-yarn.sh

Example output is



Show status of Hadoop


You can use the following command to show status of Hadoop

jps

Example output is











Complete Testing


You can also do the following to perform a complete test to ensure Hadoop is running fine.






















You could access the Hadoop Resource Manager information at http://NameNode_hostname:8088



You could also access the Hadoop cluster summary at http://NameNode_hostname:50070. You should be able to see the number of datanodes being setup for the cluster.


Reference


1. http://www.server-world.info/en/note?os=CentOS_7&p=hadoop
2. http://hadoop.apache.org/docs/current/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-common/ClusterSetup.html


Tuesday, August 9, 2016

JAVA - _JAVA_OPTIONS and JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS environment variable

JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS and _JAVA_OPTIONS are 2 useful environment variables which allow user to set JVM options in the form of environment variables, rather than setting it at the command line. But, they have slight differences

1. Precedence - From my testing, the precedence (order of evaluation) is

_JAVA_OPTIONS > Command line > JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS

With this, there is different use-case for _JAVA_OPTIONS and JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS

For _JAVA_OPTIONS, you could use it to overwrite the JVM options which has been defined in the command line.

For JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS, you could use it to put additional JVM options for the predefined command line.

2. Documentation - JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS is well documented but _JAVA_OPTIONS. So, _JAVA_OPTIONS may not be officially supported.

3. Support - _JAVA_OPTIONS is Oracle specific. The IBM Java equivalent will be IBM_JAVA_OPTIONS. JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS is platform independent.

Reference:

1. JAVA_TOOLS_OPTIONS
2. IBM_JAVA_OPTIONS
3. http://stackoverflow.com/questions/28327620/difference-between-java-options-java-tool-options-and-java-opts

Monday, July 18, 2016

Oracle - Enabling Oracle XE APEX

I had been trying to figure where and why can't I log into my Oracle 11g XE APEX. The following are the steps to fix my APEX

1. Find out which port is binded for APEX. For this, you can use lsnrctl command to find it out

$ lsnrctl status | grep HTTP
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=tng-l.localdomain)(PORT=12345))(Presentation=HTTP)(Session=RAW))

The above shows that my APEX is binded to port 12345. So, the URL will be http://hostname:12345apex/apex_admin

2. Next, when I access the url from the browser, it requires me to provide a username password in a authentication dialog, and this dialog always display with either "the server says xdb" or "the server says APEX"

For me, this is telling me that my Oracle has not been set up for remote access. To fix this, I log into Oracle database instance from the command line and issue a procedure call as follow

$sqlplus / as sysdba
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETLISTENERLOCALACCESS(FALSE);
SQL> exit

After the above, you may need to restart your Oracle database. Then, try to log into APEX again. It should bring you to the log in page which look like


3. Now, I had also forgotten my APEX password. So, I have to reset it with the following in the command line

$sqlplus / as sysdba
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> @apxxepwd admin
SQL> exit

The above will reset the default Administrator account (username: admin) with the password: admin

You can now log into the APEX with

Username: admin
Password: admin

The APEX will then ask you to change the Administrator password.

There you go, you can start using APEX.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

LDAP - Create encrypted user password

In Person object class, there is a userPassword attribute and LDAP usually use this to store user password.

To add an encrypted password to the LDAP userPassword attribute, you could

1. Use ldappasswd command

ldappasswd -xv -D "cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com" -w secret -S "cn=user1,dc=example,dc=com"

where

x --> Use simple authentication
v --> Run in verbose
D --> bind DN
w --> password for simple authentication
-S --> prompt for new password

2. Use slappasswd command

$ /usr/local/sbin/slappasswd
New password:
Re-enter new password:
{SSHA}a6a4/lrXhERF&14qesnZZAAkCgIUvSDOx


It will ask for your password and generate a SSHA password. Copy the output and put at the userPassword attribute in your ldif file.